List of people excommunicated by the Catholic Church | Wikipedia audio article

By | August 30, 2019


This is a list of some of the more notable
people excommunicated by the Catholic Church. It includes only excommunications acknowledged
or imposed by a decree of the Pope or a bishop in communion with him. Latae sententiae excommunications, those that
automatically affect classes of people (members of certain associations or those who perform
actions such as directly violating the seal of confession or carrying out an abortion),
are not listed unless confirmed by a bishop or ecclesiastical tribunal with respect to
certain individuals. In Roman Catholic canon law, excommunication
is a censure and thus a “medicinal penalty” intended to invite the person to change behavior
or attitude that incurred the penalty, repent, and return to full communion. Excommunication severs one from communion
with the Church; excommunicated Catholics are forbidden from receiving any sacrament
and refused a Catholic burial, but are still bound by canonical obligations such as attending
Mass or fasting seasonally. Excommunicated Catholics, however, are barred
from receiving the Eucharist or from taking an active part in the liturgy (reading, bringing
the offerings, etc.). They are still Catholics per se, but are separated
from the Church.==1st century==
Simon Magus, for whom simony was named An unnamed Corinthian who had married a woman
who had been his father’s wife Hymenaeus and Alexander, excommunicated by
Saint Paul the Apostle as recounted in 1 Timothy==2nd century==
Valentinus, proponent of Gnosticism Marcion of Sinope, originator of Marcionism
Montanus, originator of Montanism Theodotus of Byzantium, proponent of Adoptionism,
excommunicated by Pope Victor I==3rd century==
Sabellius, originator of Sabellianism Novatian, an early antipope who taught Novatianism
Paul of Samosata, excommunicated by a synod at Antioch in 269
Marcellus of Ancyra==4th century==
Arius, founder of Arianism Celestius, Early Arian Leader
Roman Emperor Theodosius I was excommunicated by the bishop of Milan, Saint Ambrose, for
the Massacre of Thessaloniki. After repentance, penance and restitution,
the Emperor was restored to communion with the Church.==5th century==
Nestorius, proponent of Nestorianism Eutyches, proponent of Monophysitism
Dioscorus I of Alexandria, who presided over the robber council of Ephesus
John of Antioch and his party by the Council of Ephesus==6th century==
St Columba was excommunicated in 562 by the synod of Teltown for allegedly praying for
the winning side in an Irish War. The excommunication was later held to be an
abuse of justice and the bishops in question removed their charge. The sons of Conall mac Domnaill by St Columba
some time in the late 6th century, due to their persecution of churches
Theodore of Mopsuestia by the Second Council of Constantinople==7th century==
Pyrrhus of Constantinople was excommunicated 648 by Pope Theodore I and a synod of bishops
after he had gone back on his recantation of monothelitism. The Pope and the bishops also declared him
deposed from being Patriarch of Constantinople. Theodore reportedly signed the excommunication
upon St Peter’s tomb using ink that was mingled with drops of the Blessed Sacrament. Paul II of Constantinople was excommunicated
and deposed from his see in 649 by Pope Theodore I after the patriarch had professed Monothelitism. Pope Honorius I was posthumously named as
excommunicated by Pope Leo II in a 682 letter to the Byzantine Emperor Constantine IV==8th Century==
The heretic preachers Adalbert and Clement by a council headed by St Boniface in 745. Adelbert’s excommunication was not upheld
by Rome, however, although Clement’s was. The second council of Nicaea excommunicated
a number of people by name who had lived in previous times, some of whom had been already
condemned previously, including: Arius and all who follow him, Macedonius I of Constantinople,
Nestorius and those who followed him, Eutyches, Dioscorus, Severus of Antioch and Peter the
Fuller along with those with them, Origen, Didymus the blind, Evagrius Ponticus, as well
as Sergius I of Constantinople, Pyrrhus of Constantinople, Pope Honorius I, Cyrus of
Alexandria, Macarius I of Antioch along with their followers==9th Century==
The fourth Council of Constantinople excommunicated by name and upheld a number of previous excommunications
of previous councils of a number of people who had died in previous centuries. Those names in this list were: Arius (all
those who followed his teachings were excommunicated with him), Macedonius I of Constantinople,
Nestorius, Eutyches, Dioscorus, Severus of Antioch, Peter the Fuller, Zoharas the Syrian,
Origen, Theodore of Mopsuestia, Didymus the Blind, Evagrius Ponticus, Theodere of Pharan,
Sergius I of Constantinople, Pyrrhus of Constantinople, Peter of Constantinople, Paul II of Constantinople,
Pope Honorius I, Cyrus of Alexandria, Macarius I of Antioch and his disciple Stephen, Anastasius
of Constantinople, Constantine II of Constantinople, Nicetas I of Constantinople, Theodosius III
of Ephesus, Sisinnius Pastilas, Basil Tricacabus, Theodoret, Anthony and John (priests of Constantinople),
Theodore Krithinos and Photios I of Constantinople==10th century==
In 998, Robert II of France, who had been insisting on his right to appoint bishops,
was ultimately forced to back down, and ultimately also to put aside his wife Bertha of Burgundy
who had also been excommunicated. The stated reason was the degree of consanguinity
between the two. Excommunicated by Pope Gregory V. They had
the marriage annulled by Pope Sylvester II in 1000 and were reinstated.==11th century==
Michael Cerularius, Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, in 1054. The legal validity of this excommunication
has been questioned as it was issued by legates of Pope Leo IX after the Pope’s death. It was declared lifted on December 7, 1965. Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor was excommunicated
4 times in the 11th century (and would later be excommunicated a fifth time in the 12th
century). He was excommunicated by Pope Gregory VII
three separate times, and once more by Pope Urban II. The first was on 22 February 1076 over the
Investiture Controversy. This excommunication was lifted on 28 January
1077 after Henry’s public show of penitence known as the Road to Canossa. His second excommunication by Gregory was
on 7 March 1080, and the third was in 1084 or 1085. Urban II excommunicated Henry in 1088. Harold II, King of England, for perhaps politically
motivated reasons by Pope Alexander II in order to justify the invasion and takeover
of the kingdom by William the Conqueror in 1066. Bolesław II the Generous, Duke of Poland,
was excommunicated in 1080 after murdering the bishop Saint Stanislaus of Kraków. Philip I of France, king of France, for repudiating
his marriage and remarrying, by Hugh, Archbishop of Lyon and later reaffirmed by Pope Urban
II. Bishops in France, under orders of Benedict
VIII, excommunicated feudal barons who had seized property belonging to the monastery
of Cluny in 1016 The bishop of Autun excommunicated Cluniac
monks in his diocese who took over the monastery of Vezelay without his permission; the excommunication
was removed after they left the diocese In 1031 the council of Limoges in France excommunicated
feudal barons in the diocese of Limoges who were conducting private warfare between themselves
in the midst of widespread famine and pestilence that was killing off a large portion of the
peasantry. The famine and pestilence were thought to
be punishments from God for grave sins being committed close to the millennium anniversary
of Christ’s death and resurrection. The members of the council dashed their candles
to the ground in unison after calling out ‘As these lights are extinguished before your
eyes, so let their joy be extinguished before the angels.’==12th century==
Frederick I Barbarossa, Holy Roman Emperor, by Alexander III
Anselm V (Archbishop of Milan) by Pope Honorius II
William I of Sicily, by Pope Adrian IV, while the king was waging war against the papal
states and raiding pilgrims on their way to the tombs of the apostles. Ralph I, Count of Vermandois was said to have
been excommunicated in 1142 by Bishop Saint Ivo of Chartres for repudiating his lawful
wife and marrying another Roger II of Sicily, was excommunicated under
the decrees of the Second Lateran Council in 1139
Anacletus II, antipope Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor, excommunicated
by Pope Paschal II in 1106 for refusing to abjure his claim to imperial investitures,
posthumously lifted in 1111. (Henry IV had already been excommunicated
four times in the 11th century.) Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor by Jordan, Archbishop
of Milan in 1116 and ratified by Pope Paschal II over the Investiture Controversy. Received back into communion in 1122 or thereabouts. In 1170 Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Becket
excommunicated Roger de Pont L’Évêque, the archbishop of York, along with Gilbert Foliot,
the bishop of London, and Josceline de Bohon, the bishop of Salisbury, for crowning the
heir-apparent Henry at York, thereby usurping Canterbury’s privileges. In response to these excommunications, the
heirs father, Henry II of England famously exclaimed words that led to Becket’s assassination. The Third Lateran Council excommunicated the
Cathars and mercenary groups that were plaguing Europe at the time==13th century==
King John of England, excommunicated in 1208 by Pope Innocent III after refusing to accept
Cardinal Stephen Langdon as the pope’s choice for Archbishop of Canterbury. John relented in 1213 and was restored to
communion. King Afonso II of Portugal, excommunicated
in 1212 by Pope Honorius III for weakening the clergy and investing part of the large
sums destined to the Catholic Church in the unification of the country. Afonso II promised to reconcile with the Church,
however, he died in 1223 without making any serious attempt to do so. King Andrew II of Hungary, was excommunicated
in 1231 after not following the points of Golden Bull of 1222, a seminal bill of rights,
which contained new dispositions related to the tithe and hostile practices against the
Jews and Muslims of the realm. Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, was excommunicated
three times. The first time by Pope Gregory IX in 1227
for delaying his promise to begin the 5th Crusade; the excommunication was lifted in
1229. The same pope excommunicated him again in
1239 for making war against the Papal States, a censure rescinded by the new pope, Celestine
IV, who died soon after. Frederick was again excommunicated by Pope
Innocent IV at the First Council of Lyons in 1245. Frederick repented just before his death and
was absolved of the censure in 1250. Gilbert de Clare, 7th Earl of Gloucester was
excommunicated in 1264 by Pope Clement IV for rebelling against King Henry III of England
during the Second Barons’ War. This was lifted in 1268. King Ladislaus IV of Hungary in 1279, by the
pope’s envoy Philip, for acting against the Catholic Church and living in a pagan way
with the Cumans. James II of Aragon, in 1286 by Pope Boniface
VIII for being crowned King of Sicily and thereby usurping a papal fief. His younger brother Frederick III of Sicily
was excommunicated for the same reason in 1296. Jacopo Colonna and Pietro Colonna, both cardinals,
were excommunicated by Pope Boniface VIII in the bull ‘excelso throno’ (1297) for refusing
to surrender their relative Stefano Colonna (who had seized and robbed the pope’s nephew)
and refusing to give the pope Palestrina along with two fortresses, which threatened the
pope. This excommunication was extended in the same
year to Jacopo’s nephews and their heirs, after the two Colonna cardinals denounced
the pope’s election as invalid and appealed to a general council. Eric VI of Denmark in 1298, by Pope Boniface
VIII, for imprisoning Archbishop of Lund, Jens Grand. Byzantine Emperor Michael VIII Palaiologos
of Constantinople, by Pope Martin IV. Peter III of Aragon, by Pope Martin IV==14th century==
Antipopes at Avignon Clement VII and Benedict XIII and their followers by proxy. Barnabò Visconti, tyrant of Milan, by Blessed
Urban V in 1363. This was later rescinded after Barnabo restored
castles he had seized and peace was concluded between him and the papal states. Mercenary bands known as the ‘free companies’
that had overrun Italy and France were excommunicated by Blessed Urban V in 1366. Included in this excommunication were the
German Count of Landau and the Englishman Sir John Hawkwood. Pedro the Cruel of Navarre was excommunicated
by Blessed Urban V for his persecutions of clergy and cruelty. King Philip the Fair of France in 1303 by
Pope Boniface VIII, for failing to respond adequately to a papal letter regarding Philip’s
effective rejection of the pope’s temporal authority. Ladislaus Kán, Hungarian noble regent of
the region of Transylvania that was excommunicated in 1309 by the pope’s envoy Gentilis for not
handing over the Holy Crown of Hungary, that was being kept illegally by him. Matthew III Csák, Hungarian noble that was
excommunicated in 1311 by the pope’s envoy Gentilis, for not accepting the new King Charles
I of Hungary. Robert the Bruce, King of Scots 1306-1329,
was excommunicated following his killing of the Red Comyn before the altar of the Greyfriars
Church at Dumfries in 1306. William de Lamberton, Bishop of St Andrews. David de Moravia, Bishop of Moray. Robert Wishart, Bishop of Glasgow. Joanna I of Naples in 1378 by Pope Urban VI
for her support of Antipope Clement VII, support deemed heretical by Urban. All of the cardinals who voted for Antipope
Clement VII were excommunicated by Urban VI. John Wycliffe was posthumously excommunicated
by the Council of Constance.==15th century==
Jerome of Prague in 1409 by Zbyněk Zajíc of Hazmburk, Archbishop of Prague, for his
role in the Czech Wycliffe campaign. Pope Martin V in 1411 by Pope Gregory XII
for supporting Pisan Antipope Alexander V and Antipope John XXIII. Hussites founder Jan Hus by the Council of
Constance in 1415. Saint Joan of Arc by Bishop Pierre Cauchon
on May 30, 1431 (even though he allowed her Holy Communion before her immolation). She was fully reconciled to the Catholic Church
at her Trial of Nullification in 1456. Antipope Felix V and his followers by Pope
Eugene IV at the Council of Florence on March 23, 1440. Bishop Pierre Cauchon in 1457 by Pope Callixtus
III for his persecution and condemnation of Joan of Arc. Girolamo Savonarola in 1497 by Pope Alexander
VI.==16th century==
Pietro Colonna in 1501 by Pope Alexander VI James IV of Scotland in 1513 for breaking
the Treaty of Perpetual Peace with England. Martin Luther, founder of Protestantism, in
1521 by Pope Leo X. Henry VIII of England in 1533, officially
promulgated on 17 December 1538 by Pope Paul III. Thomas Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury and
first Protestant Archbishop of Canterbury of the Church of England. Cardinal Odet de Coligny, on 31 March 1563,
for professing the Calvinist faith. Elizabeth I of England in 1570 by the papal
bull Regnans in Excelsis. Thomas Erastus, founder of Erastianism
Henry IV of France and Navarre, who famously retaliated by “excommunicating” the Pope. He later converted to Catholicism and his
excommunication was lifted on 17 September 1595. Giovanni Bentivoglio, leader of Bologna, in
1506 by Julius II, while the pope was at war with him and leading an army to take Bologna. Alfonso I d’Este, Duke of Ferrara, by Julius
II in 1510. Discalced Carmelites in Spain who participated
in an illicit meeting to elect a provincial without approval, by the Pope’s legate in
Spain Filippo Sega in 1578 This was ignored by those excommunicated. It was formally revoked in 1579. Carmelite nuns of the Monastery of the Encarnacion
in Avila who refused to renounce St Teresa’s leadership of the convent, by the orders provincial,
after the church authorities ordered a replacement in 1577. This excommunication was revoked later that
year.==17th century==
Mikołaj Sapieha in approximately 1625 by Pope Urban VIII; punishment for stealing a
painting. The excommunication was lifted in 1634 to
allow Sapieha to publicly oppose the suggested marriage of Władysław IV Vasa and Princess
Elizabeth of Bohemia. Odoardo Farnese, Duke of Parma in 1641 by
Pope Urban VIII during the Wars of Castro. Priests Francisco de Jaca and Epiphane de
Moirans in 1681 for opposing slavery in Cuba by their local bishop, however in 1686 the
Holy Office under Pope Innocent XI formally agreed with a document they co-authored, which
decried the slave trade.==18th century==
Most important supporters of Jansenism, in the 1718 bull Pastoralis officii
Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord, Bishop of Autun, by Pope Pius VI. Before his death, Talleyrand was reconciled
with the Catholic Church.==19th century==
Napoleon was excommunicated June 10, 1809 by Pope Pius VII for ordering the annexation
of Rome and a long period of anti-Papal orders. Before Napoleon’s death, his excommunication
was lifted and he received the last rites. Stephen Kaminski, bishop of the Polish National
Catholic Church, in 1898 Francis Hodur, Roman Catholic priest (Scranton,
Pennsylvania) and Prime Bishop of the Polish National Catholic Church
Gregorio Aglipay Cruz y Labayan was a Roman Catholic priest who became the first Filipino
Supreme Bishop of the Philippine Independent Church, a new Protestant church. Excommunicated in May 1899 by Archbishop of
Manila Bernardino Norzaleda y Villa. Saint Mary MacKillop by Bishop Laurence Sheil
in 1871. Five months later, from his deathbed, Shiel
rescinded the excommunication. An Episcopal Commission later gave her a complete
exoneration and it has since been made clear that the excommunication was never valid under
Canon Law. Fr. Edward McGlynn was excommunicated in 1887
for opposing the establishment of parochial schools believing that they were unnecessary. The excommunication was lifted in 1892. Fr. José María Morelos (excommunication lifted
before Morelos’ death) and Fr. Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla for “disturbances
of the public order, corrupting the public, sacrilege [and] perjury” in 1810. King Victor Emmanuel II of Italy was excommunicated
by Pope Pius IX when the king successfully waged war against the Papal States, resulting
in limiting the pope to Vatican City. Before Victor Emmanuel II’s death his excommunication
was lifted and he was permitted to take the last rites. Charles Loyson (name as a Carmelite: Hyacinthe)
was excommunicated in 1869 for leaving his religious order after refusing to retract
his protest against the manner of convocation of the First Vatican Council. Colombian writer and atheist José María
Vargas Vila was excommunicated upon the publication his novel Ibis (1900). Scientist Dr. Gregorio Chil y Naranjo was
excommunicated in 1878 for his work on evolution in the Canary Islands entitled “Estudios historicos,
climatologicos y patológicos de las Islas Canarias.” The Bishop of Barcelona, José María de Urquinaona
y Vidot, declared the work “false, impious, scandalous, and heretical” and excommunicated
the doctor.==20th century==
All Catholics who participated in the creation of an Philippine Independent Church in the
Philippines, in 1902 Feliksa Kozłowska, Maria Michał Kowalski
and the Mariavite movement in December 1906 by St Pius X
Alfred Loisy, a French cleric associated with modernism (1908?). Father Romolo Murri, a leader of the Italian
Catholic Democrats, for giving speeches against Papal policy (1909)
Marshal Josip Broz Tito (1946) and all Catholics who participated in the trial of Archbishop
Aloysius Stepinac of Zagreb and the trial of Archbishop József Mindszenty of Hungary,
which included most of the jury members. Fr Michel Collin of France was excommunicated
in 1951 for various heresies, and later declared himself Pope Clement XV. Leonard Feeney (1953), a U.S. Jesuit priest
who defended the strict interpretation of the Roman Catholic doctrine “outside the Church
there is no salvation”, arguing that baptism of blood and baptism of desire are unavailing. Feeney was later fully reconciled to the Church
before his death. Juan Perón, in 1955, after he signed a decree
ordering the expulsion of Argentine bishops Manuel Tato and Ramón Novoa In 1963 Perón
was reconciled with the Church and his excommunication lifted. Plaquemines Parish President Leander Perez,
Jackson G. Ricau (secretary of the Citizens Council of South Louisiana) and Mrs. B.J.
Gaillot, Jr., president of Save Our Nation, Inc., on April 16, 1962 by Archbishop Joseph
Rummel of the Archdiocese of New Orleans. They were excommunicated for aggressively
opposing the racial integration of Catholic schools in the Archdiocese starting in the
1963-64 school year. Perez and Ricau were later reinstated into
the Church following public retractions. Fidel Castro is reported to have been excommunicated
by John XXIII in 1962 for affiliating with the Communist Party of Cuba, preaching communism
and supporting a communist government; the basis of the excommunication is supposed to
have been the 1949 Decree against Communism of Pope Pius XII. Other sources deny that there was any such
personal excommunication of the Cuban leader. John Duryea, priest at Stanford University
and in Palo Alto, California, in 1976 Archbishop Marcel Lefebvre, Bishops Antonio
de Castro Meyer, Bernard Fellay, Bernard Tissier de Mallerais, Richard Williamson and Alfonso
de Galarreta for the Ecône Consecrations (Society of St. Pius X) without papal mandate. Formally declared to have incurred latae sententiae
excommunication by Cardinal Bernardin Gantin on July 1, 1988. The excommunications of the latter four (the
bishops consecrated in that 1988 ceremony) were lifted in 2009; the first two (the consecrator
and the co-consecrator) had died in the meantime. Williamson fell under a second excommunication
after illicitly ordaining a bishop. Tissa Balasuriya, Sri Lankan Catholic priest,
excommunicated in 1997 for his doctrinal views but had this excommunication lifted a year
later after admitting “perceptions of error”, and agreeing to submit all future writings
to his bishops for their imprimatur. Members of multiple organizations in the Roman
Catholic Diocese of Lincoln, Nebraska were excommunicated by Bishop Fabian Bruskewitz
in March 1996 for promoting positions he deemed “totally incompatible with the Catholic faith”. The organizations include Call to Action,
Catholics for a Free Choice, Planned Parenthood, the Hemlock Society, the Freemasons, and the
Society of St. Pius X. The Vatican later confirmed the excommunication
of Call to Action members in November 2006,but in 2017, the current bishop of Lincoln met
with leadership of the group and proposed a way for individuals to be reconciled to
the Church, without having to renounce their membership in the organization, as long as
they reaffirmed their commitment to all of Church teaching.==21st century==
The Community of the Lady of All Nations for heretical teachings and beliefs after a six-year
investigation. The declaration was announced by the Canadian
Conference of Catholic Bishops on September 12, 2007. Fr. Dale Fushek (also laicized by Pope Benedict
XVI 02/2010) and Fr. Mark Dippre. Former Priests were issued a Decree of Excommunication
by Bishop Thomas J. Olmsted for operating “an opposing ecclesial community” in direct
disobedience to orders to refrain from public ministry. Fr. Marek Bozek (since laicized by Pope Benedict
XVI), and the lay parish board members of St. Stanislaus Kostka Church in St. Louis,
Missouri in December 2005 were declared guilty of the ecclesiastical crime of schism by then-Archbishop
Raymond Leo Burke. Their excommunication was ratified by the
Vatican in May 2008. Four of the parish board members have since
reconciled with the Church. Both the doctors and the mother of the nine-year-old
victim in the 2009 Brazilian girl abortion case were said by Archbishop Jose Cardoso
Sobrinho of Olinda and Recife to have incurred an automatic excommunication. The victim had an abortion after being raped
and impregnated by her stepfather. The National Conference of Bishops of Brazil
contradicted Sobrinho’s statement: it declared that, in accordance with canon law, the girl’s
mother was not in fact excommunicated and that there were no grounds for stating that
any of the doctors involved were in fact excommunicated. Disagreement with the Archbishop’s view of
the supposed excommunication was expressed also by other bishops. Sr. Margaret McBride, a nun, for allowing
an abortion. McBride later reconciled with the Church and
is no longer living in a state of excommunication. Paul Lei Shiyin for illicitly ordaining priests
in China. In October 2012, the newspapers El Observador
and El País reported that all the Catholics who promoted the abortion law in Uruguay were
excommunicated. The newspaper Urgente24, in spite of a headline
stating that what it called the “abortionist lawmakers” were excommunicated, explained
in the body of the article that automatic excommunication applied only to someone who
directly carried out an abortion. The bishops website also explained that excommunication
would automatically apply, under Canon Law 1398, only to anyone carrying out an abortion,
and not to lawmakers. Fr. Roy Bourgeois (also laicized and dismissed
from the Maryknoll Fathers) for participating in the ordination of a woman. Fr. Robert Marrone, by Bishop Richard Gerard Lennon
of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Cleveland in Cleveland, Ohio for violating the terms
of his leave of absence. Marrone set up a worshipping community (the
Community of St. Peter’s) in a vacant warehouse and outside of a Catholic building or church
after St. Peter’s Parish in Cleveland was closed (it has since been reopened), in defiance
of the bishop. Fr. Simon Lokodo, The Minister for Ethics and
Integrity in Uganda, was excommunicated from the Catholic Church by Pope Benedict XVI when
he entered politics in violation of Canon Law 285.3
Fr. Roberto Francisco Daniel, known by local community
as “Father Beto”, by Bishop Caetano Ferrari, from Bauru, Brazil. Daniel was excommunicated because he refused
a direct order from his bishop to apologize for or retract his statement that love was
possible between people of the same sex. The priest also said a married person who
chose to have an affair, heterosexual or otherwise, would not be unfaithful as long as that person’s
spouse allowed it. Fr Greg Reynolds of Melbourne, Australia was
excommunicated in 2013 for continuing to celebrate Mass when not permitted, advocating the ordination
of women, and promoting same-sex marriage. Fr. Jose Mercau in 2014 as part of the Catholic
Church sexual abuse cases scandal. In June 2016, Pope Francis excommunicated
a schismatic Italian Catholic sect in Italy calling itself the Universal Christian Church
of the New Jerusalem. In February 2018 Pope Francis excommunicated
Fr Ezinwanne Igbo, a Nigerian priest working on the Sunshine Coast of Queensland, Australia,
for breaking the seal of the confessional.==See also==
List of excommunicated cardinals Shunning
List of excommunicable offences in the Catholic Church==References====
External links==Media related to People excommunicated by
the Roman Catholic Church at Wikimedia Commons

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