Anti-Catholicism | Wikipedia audio article

By | September 14, 2019


Anti-Catholicism is hostility towards Catholics
or opposition to the Catholic Church, its clergy and its adherents. At various points after the Reformation, some
majority Protestant states, including England, Prussia, and also Scotland made anti-Catholicism
and opposition to the Pope and Catholic rituals major political themes, with anti-Catholic
sentiment at times leading to religious discrimination against Catholic individuals (often derogatorily
referred to in Anglophone Protestant countries as “papists” or “Romanists”). Historian John Wolffe identifies four types
of anti-Catholicism: constitutional-national, theological, popular and socio-cultural.Historically,
Catholics in Protestant countries were frequently suspected of conspiring against the state
in furtherance of papal interests. Support for the alien pope led to allegations
challenging loyalty to the state. In majority Protestant countries with large
scale immigration, such as the United States and Australia, suspicion or discrimination
of Catholic immigrants often overlapped or conflated with nativism, xenophobia, and ethnocentric
or racist sentiments (i.e. anti-Italianism, anti-Irish sentiment, Hispanophobia, anti-Quebec
sentiment, anti-Polish sentiment). In the Early modern period, the Catholic Church
struggled to maintain its traditional religious and political role in the face of rising secular
powers in Catholic countries. As a result of these struggles, there arose
a hostile attitude towards the considerable political, social, spiritual and religious
power of the Pope and the clergy in the form of anti-clericalism. The Inquisition was a favorite target of attack. Anti-clerical forces gained strength after
1789 in some primarily Catholic nations, such as France, Spain and Mexico. Political parties formed that expressed a
hostile attitude towards the considerable political, social, spiritual and religious
power of Catholic Church in the form of anti-clericalism, attacks on the power of the pope to name bishops,
and international orders, especially the Jesuits.==In primarily Protestant countries==Protestant Reformers, including John Wycliffe,
Martin Luther, John Calvin, Thomas Cranmer, John Thomas, John Knox, Roger Williams, Cotton
Mather, and John Wesley, as well as most Protestants of the 16th-18th centuries, identified the
Papacy with the Antichrist. The Centuriators of Magdeburg, a group of
Lutheran scholars in Magdeburg headed by Matthias Flacius, wrote the 12-volume Magdeburg Centuries
to discredit the Papacy and lead other Christians to recognize the Pope as the Antichrist. The fifth round of talks in the Lutheran–Catholic
dialogue notes, In calling the pope the “Antichrist”, the
early Lutherans stood in a tradition that reached back into the eleventh century. Not only dissidents and heretics but even
saints had called the bishop of Rome the “Antichrist” when they wished to castigate his abuse of
power. What Lutherans incorrectly understood as a
papal claim to unlimited authority over everything and everyone reminded them of the Apocalyptic
imagery of Daniel 11, a passage that even prior to the Reformation had been applied
to the pope as the Antichrist of the last days. Doctrinal works of literature published by
the Lutherans, the Reformed churches, the Presbyterians, the Baptists, the Anabaptists,
and the Methodists contain references to the Pope as the Antichrist, including the Smalcald
Articles, Article 4 (1537), the Treatise on the Power and Primacy of the Pope (1537),
the Westminster Confession, Article 25.6 (1646), and the 1689 Baptist Confession of Faith,
Article 26.4. In 1754, John Wesley published his Explanatory
Notes Upon the New Testament, which is currently an official Doctrinal Standard of the United
Methodist Church. In his notes on the Book of Revelation (chapter
13), he commented: “The whole succession of Popes from Gregory VII are undoubtedly Antichrists. Yet this hinders not, but that the last Pope
in this succession will be more eminently the Antichrist, the Man of Sin, adding to
that of his predecessors a peculiar degree of wickedness from the bottomless pit.”Referring
to the Book of Revelation, Edward Gibbon stated that “The advantage of turning those mysterious
prophecies against the See of Rome, inspired the Protestants with uncommon veneration for
so useful an ally.” Protestants condemned the Catholic policy
of mandatory celibacy for priests.During the Enlightenment Era, of the 17th and 18th century,
with its strong emphasis on the need for religious toleration, the Inquisition was a favorite
target of attack by intellectuals.===British Empire=======
Great Britain====Institutional anti-Catholicism in Britain
and Ireland began with the English Reformation under Henry VIII. The Act of Supremacy of 1534 declared the
English crown to be ‘the only supreme head on earth of the Church in England’ in place
of the pope. Any act of allegiance to the latter was considered
treasonous because the papacy claimed both spiritual and political power over its followers. It was under this act that saints Thomas More
and John Fisher were executed and became martyrs to the Catholic faith. Queen Mary, Henry’s daughter, was a devout
Catholic and as queen (1553–58) for five years tried to reverse the Reformation. She married the Catholic king of Spain and
executed Protestant leaders. Protestants reviled her as “Bloody Mary”. Anti-Catholicism among many of the English
was grounded in the fear that the pope sought to reimpose not just religio-spiritual authority
over England but also secular power in alliance with arch-enemy France or Spain. In 1570, Pope Pius V sought to depose Elizabeth
with the papal bull Regnans in Excelsis, which declared her a heretic and purported to dissolve
the duty of all Elizabeth’s subjects of their allegiance to her. This rendered Elizabeth’s subjects who persisted
in their allegiance to the Catholic Church politically suspect, and made the position
of her Catholic subjects largely untenable if they tried to maintain both allegiances
at once. The Recusancy Acts, making it a legal obligation
to worship in the Anglican faith, date from Elizabeth’s reign. Assassination plots in which Catholics were
prime movers fueled anti-Catholicism in England. These included the famous Gunpowder Plot,
in which Guy Fawkes and other conspirators plotted to blow up the English Parliament
while it was in session. The fictitious “Popish Plot” involving Titus
Oates was a hoax that many Protestants believed to be true, exacerbating Anglican-Catholic
relations. The Glorious Revolution of 1688–1689 involved
the overthrow of King James II, of the Stuart dynasty, who favoured the Catholics, and his
replacement by a Dutch Protestant. For decades the Stuarts were supported by
France in plots to invade and conquer Britain, and anti-Catholicism persisted.=====Gordon Riots 1780=====The Gordon Riots of 1780 were a violent anti-Catholic
protest in London against the Papists Act of 1778, which was intended to reduce official
discrimination against British Catholics. Lord George Gordon, head of the Protestant
Association warned that the law would enable Catholics in the British Army to become a
dangerous threat. The protest evolved into riots and widespread
looting. Local magistrates were afraid of reprisals
and did not issue the riot act. There was no repression until the Army finally
moved in and started shooting, killing hundreds of protesters. The main violence lasted from 2 June to 9
June 1780. Public opinion, especially in middle-class
and elite circles, repudiated anti-Catholicism and lower-class violence, and rallied behind
Lord North’s government. Demands were made for a London police force.====19th century====
The long bitter wars with France 1793-1815, saw anti-Catholicism emerge as the glue that
held the three kingdoms together. From the upper classes to the lower classes,
Protestants were brought together from England, Scotland and Ireland into a profound distrust
and distaste for all things French. That enemy nation was depicted as the natural
home of misery and oppression because of its inherent inability to shed the darkness of
Catholic superstition and clerical manipulation.Catholics in Ireland got the vote in the 1790s but were
politically inert for another three decades. Finally, they were mobilized by Daniel O’Connell
into majorities in most of the Irish parliamentary districts. They could only elect, but Catholics could
not be seated in parliament. The Catholic emancipation issue became a major
crisis. Previously anti-Catholic politicians led by
the Duke of Wellington and Robert Peel reversed themselves to prevent massive violence. All Catholics in Britain were “emancipated”
in the Roman Catholic Relief Act 1829. That is they freed from most of the penalties
and restrictions they faced. Anti-Catholic attitudes continued, however.====Since 1945====
Since World War II anti-Catholic feeling in England has abated somewhat. Ecumenical dialogue between Anglicans and
Catholics culminated in the first meeting of an Archbishop of Canterbury with a Pope
since the Reformation when Archbishop Geoffrey Fisher visited Rome in 1960. Since then, dialogue has continued through
envoys and standing conferences. Meanwhile, both the nonconformist churches
such as the Methodists, and the established Church of England, have dramatically declined
and membership. Catholic membership in Britain continues to
grow, thanks to the immigration of Irish and more recently Polish workers.Conflict and
rivalry between Catholicism and Protestantism since the 1920, and especially since the 1960s,
has centred in the Troubles in Northern Ireland.Anti-Catholicism in Britain was long represented by the burning
of an effigy of the Catholic conspirator Guy Fawkes at widespread celebrations on Guy Fawkes
Night every 5 November. This celebration has, however, largely lost
any anti-Catholic connotation. Only faint remains of anti-Catholicism are
found today.====Ireland====
As punishment for the rebellion of 1641, almost all lands owned by Irish Catholics were confiscated
and given to Protestant settlers. Under the penal laws, no Irish Catholic could
sit in the Parliament of Ireland, even though some 90% of Ireland’s population was native
Irish Catholic when the first of these bans was introduced in 1691. Catholic / Protestant strife has been blamed
for much of “The Troubles”, the ongoing struggle in Northern Ireland. The English Protestant rulers killed many
thousands of Irish people (mostly Catholics) who refused to acknowledge the government
and sought an alliance with Catholic France, England’s great enemy. General Oliver Cromwell, England’s military
dictator (1653–58) launched a full-scale military attack on Catholics in Ireland, (1649–53). Frances Stewart explains: “Faced with the
prospect of an Irish alliance with Charles II, Cromwell carried out a series of massacres
in order to subdue the Irish. Then, once Cromwell had returned to England,
the English Commissary, General Henry Ireton adopted a deliberate policy of crop burning
and starvation, which was responsible for the majority of an estimated 600,000 deaths
out of a total Irish population of 1,400,000.”In addition to the military conflict and occupation,
50,000 women, children, and men were forcibly removed from Ireland and sent to Bermuda and
Barbados as indentured servants.=====Laws that restricted the rights of Irish
Catholics=====The Irish potato famine was due in part to
Anti-Catholic laws. In the 17th and 18th centuries, Irish Catholics
had been prohibited by the penal laws from purchasing or leasing land, from voting, from
holding political office, from living in or within 5 miles (8 km) of a corporate town,
from obtaining education, from entering a profession, and from doing many other things
that were necessary for a person to succeed and prosper in society. The laws had largely been reformed by 1793,
and in 1829, Irish Catholics could again sit in parliament following the Act of Emancipation.====Canada====Fears of the Catholic Church were quite strong
in the 19th century, especially among Presbyterian and other Protestant Irish immigrants across
Canada.In 1853, the Gavazzi Riots left 10 dead in Quebec in the wake of Catholic Irish
protests against Anti-catholic speeches by ex-monk Alessandro Gavazzi. The most influential newspaper in Canada,
The Globe of Toronto, was edited by George Brown, a Presbyterian immigrant from Ireland
who ridiculed and denounced the Catholic Church, Jesuits, priests, nunneries, etc. Irish Protestants remained a political force
until the 20th century. Many belonged to the Orange Order, an anti-Catholic
organization with chapters across Canada that was most powerful during the late 19th century.A
key leader was Dalton McCarthy (1836–1898), a Protestant who had immigrated from Ireland. In the late 19th century he mobilized the
“Orange” or Protestant Irish, and fiercely fought against Irish Catholics as well as
the French Catholics. He especially crusaded for the abolition of
the French language in Manitoba and Ontario schools.=====French language schools in Canada=====
One of the most controversial issues was public support for Catholic French-language schools. Although the Confederation Agreement of 1867
guaranteed the status of Catholic schools when legalized by provincial governments,
disputes erupted in numerous provinces, especially in the Manitoba Schools Question in the 1890s
and in Ontario in the 1910s. In Ontario, Regulation 17 was a regulation
by the Ontario Ministry of Education that restricted the use of French as a language
of instruction to the first two years of schooling. French Canada reacted vehemently and lost,
dooming its French-language Catholic schools. This was a central reason for French Canada’s
distance from the World War I effort, as its young men refused to enlist.Protestant elements
succeeded in blocking the growth of French-language Catholic public schools. However, the Irish Catholics generally supported
the English language position advocated by the Protestants.=====Newfoundland=====
Newfoundland long experienced social and political tensions between the large Irish Catholic
working-class, on the one hand and the Anglican elite on the other. In the 1850s, the Catholic bishop organized
his flock and made them stalwarts of the Liberal party. Nasty rhetoric was the prevailing style elections;
bloody riots were common during the 1861 election. The Protestants narrowly elected Hugh Hoyles
as the Conservative Prime Minister. Hoyles unexpectedly reversed his long record
of militant Protestant activism and worked to defuse tensions. He shared patronage and power with the Catholics;
all jobs and patronage were split between the various religious bodies on a per capita
basis. This ‘denominational compromise’ was further
extended to education when all religious schools were put on the basis which the Catholics
had enjoyed since the 1840s. Alone in North America Newfoundland had a
state funded system of denominational schools. The compromise worked and politics ceased
to be about religion and became concerned with purely political and economic issues.====Australia====
The presence of Catholicism in Australia came with the 1788 arrival of the First Fleet of
British convict ships at Sydney. The colonial authorities blocked a Catholic
clerical presence until 1820, reflecting the legal disabilities of Catholics in Britain. Some of the Irish convicts had been transported
to Australia for political crimes or social rebellion and authorities remained suspicious
of the minority religion.Catholic convicts were compelled to attend Church of England
services and their children and orphans were raised as Anglicans. The first Catholic priests to arrive came
as convicts following the Irish 1798 Rebellion. In 1803, one Fr Dixon was conditionally emancipated
and permitted to celebrate Mass, but following the Irish led Castle Hill Rebellion of 1804,
Dixon’s permission was revoked. Fr Jeremiah Flynn, an Irish Cistercian, was
appointed as Prefect Apostolic of New Holland and set out uninvited from Britain for the
colony. Watched by authorities, Flynn secretly performed
priestly duties before being arrested and deported to London. Reaction to the affair in Britain led to two
further priests being allowed to travel to the colony in 1820. The Church of England was disestablished in
the Colony of New South Wales by the Church Act of 1836. Drafted by the Catholic attorney-general John
Plunkett, the act established legal equality for Anglicans, Catholics and Presbyterians
and was later extended to Methodists.By the late 19th century approximately a quarter
of the population of Australia were Irish Australians. Many were descended from the 40,000 Irish
Catholics who were transported as convicts to Australia before 1867. The majority consisted of British and Irish
Protestants. The Catholics dominated the labour unions
and the Labor Party. The growth of school systems in the late 19th
century typically involved religious issues, pitting Protestants against Catholics. The issue of independence for Ireland was
long a sore point, until the matter was resolved by the Irish War of Independence.Limited freedom
of belief is protected by Section 116 of the Constitution of Australia, but sectarianism
in Australia persisted into the twentieth century, flaring during the First World War,
again reflecting Ireland’s place within the Empire, and the Catholic minority remained
subject to discrimination and suspicion. During the First World War, the Irish gave
support for the war effort and comprised 20% of the army in France. However, the labour unions and the Irish in
particular, strongly opposed conscription, and in alliance with like-minded farmers,
defeated it in national plebiscites in 1916 and 1917. The Anglicans in particular talked of Catholic
“disloyalty”. By the 1920s, Australia had its first Catholic
prime minister. In the late twentieth century, the Catholic
Church replaced the Anglican Church as the largest Christian Church in Australia, and
by the twenty-first century, although Protestants remain a majority. Anti-Catholicism is minimal in modern Australia,
although it persists in some quarters.Following the Second World War the Labour movement and
the Australian Labor Party came more and more under the influence of the Moscow-controlled
Australian Communist Party and this struggle resulted in the Australian Labor Party split
of 1955 resulting in the creation of the anti-Communist “Democratic Labor Party” with whom the
more Catholic dominated unions were aligned. Politically this was damaging to the ALP who
did not regain office at the Federal level for another 17 years.====New Zealand====
According to New Zealand scholar Michael King, the situation in New Zealand has never been
as clear as it was in Australia. Catholics first arrived in New Zealand in
1769. The Church has had “a continuous presence
there from the time of the permanent settlement by Irish Catholics in the 1820s, and the first
conversions of Maori in the 1830s.” However the achievement of the English to
gain Maori signatures to a “Treaty” in 1840, created a dominant Protestant country, though
French Jean Baptiste Pompallier was able to include a clause about guaranteed freedom
of religion in the text. Some sectarian violence was evident in New
Zealand in the late 19th century and early twentieth. In the 21st century, Catholicism expresses
itself as a left-wing social movement, which includes Jim Anderton; however, other children
of established Catholic families have entered politics, where they tend to join right-wing
individualist forces (Jim Bolger, Peter Dunne, Gerry Brownlee). King notes (p. 183) that Bolger (centre-right
wing National Party) was the country’s fourth Catholic Prime Minister. A previous Catholic Prime Minister was Michael
Joseph Savage, who instigated numerous social reforms, evidence that since the 1930s, Catholics
have been more at odds within their own ranks, than discriminated against in New Zealand
society.===Germany===Unification into the German Empire in 1871
saw a country with a Protestant majority and large Catholic minority, speaking German or
Polish. Anti-Catholicism was common. The powerful German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck—a
devout Lutheran—forged an alliance with secular liberals in 1871–1878 to launch
a Kulturkampf (literally, “culture struggle”) especially in Prussia, the largest state in
the new German Empire to destroy the political power of the Catholic Church and the Pope. Catholics were numerous in the South (Bavaria)
and west (Rhineland) and fought back. Bismarck intended to end Catholics’ loyalty
with Rome (ultramontanism) and subordinate all Germans to the power of his state. Priests and bishops who resisted the Kulturkampf
were arrested or removed from their positions. By the height of anti-Catholic legislation,
half of the Prussian bishops were in prison or in exile, a quarter of the parishes had
no priest, half the monks and nuns had left Prussia, a third of the monasteries and convents
were closed, 1800 parish priests were imprisoned or exiled, and thousands of laymen were imprisoned
for helping the priests. There were anti-Polish elements in Greater
Poland Silesia. The Catholics refused to comply; they strengthened
their Centre Party. Pius IX died in 1878 and was replaced by more
conciliatory Pope Leo XIII who negotiated away most of the anti-Catholic laws beginning
in 1880. Bismark himself broke with the anti-Catholic
Liberals and worked with the Catholic Centre Party to fight Socialism. Pope Leo officially declared the end of the
Kulturkampf on 23 May 1887.====Nazi Germany====The Catholic Church faced repression in Nazi
Germany (1933-1945). Hitler despised the Church although he had
been brought up in a Catholic home. The long term aim of the Nazis was to de-Christianise
Germany and restore Germanic paganism. Richard J. Evans writes that Hitler believed
that in the long run National Socialism and religion would not be able to co-exist, and
he stressed repeatedly that Nazism was a secular ideology, founded on modern science: “Science,
he declared, would easily destroy the last remaining vestiges of superstition”. Germany could not tolerate the intervention
of foreign influences such as the Pope and “Priests, he said, were ‘black bugs’, ‘abortions
in black cassocks'”. Nazi ideology desired the subordination of
the church to the state and could not accept an autonomous establishment, whose legitimacy
did not spring from the government. From the beginning, the Catholic Church faced
general persecution, regimentation and oppression. Aggressive anti-Church radicals like Joseph
Goebbels and Martin Bormann saw the conflict with the Churches as a priority concern, and
anti-church and anti-clerical sentiments were strong among grassroots party activists. To many Nazis, Catholics were suspected of
insufficient patriotism, or even of disloyalty to the Fatherland, and of serving the interests
of “sinister alien forces”.Adolf Hitler had some regard for the organisational power of
Catholicism, but towards its teachings he showed only the sharpest hostility, calling
them “the systematic cultivation of the human failure”: To Hitler, Christianity was a religion
fit only for slaves and he detested its ethics. Alan Bullock wrote: “Its teaching, he declared,
was a rebellion against the natural law of selection by struggle and the survival of
the fittest”. From political considerations, Hitler was
prepared to restrain his anti-clericalism, seeing danger in strengthening the Church
by persecution, but intended a show-down after the war. Joseph Goebbels, the Minister for Propaganda,
led the Nazi persecution of the Catholic clergy and wrote that there was “an insoluble opposition
between the Christian and a heroic-German world view”. Hitler’s chosen deputy, Martin Bormann, was
a rigid guardian of Nazi orthodoxy and saw Christianity and Nazism as “incompatible”,
as did the official Nazi philosopher, Alfred Rosenberg, who wrote in Myth of the Twentieth
Century (1930) that Catholics were among the chief enemies of the Germans. In 1934, the Sanctum Officium put Rosenberg’s
book on the Index Librorum Prohibitorum (forbidden books list of the Church) for scorning and
rejecting “all dogmas of the Catholic Church, indeed the very fundamentals of the Christian
religion”.The Nazis claimed jurisdiction over all collective and social activity, interfering
with Catholic schooling, youth groups, workers’ clubs and cultural societies. Hitler moved quickly to eliminate Political
Catholicism, rounding up members of the Catholic aligned Bavarian People’s Party and Catholic
Centre Party, which ceased to exist in early July 1933. Vice Chancellor Papen meanwhile, amid continuing
molestation of Catholic clergy and organisations, negotiated a Reich concordat with the Holy
See, which prohibited clergy from participating in politics. Hitler then proceeded to close all Catholic
institutions whose functions weren’t strictly religious:
It quickly became clear that [Hitler] intended to imprison the Catholics, as it were, in
their own churches. They could celebrate mass and retain their
rituals as much as they liked, but they could have nothing at all to do with German society
otherwise. Catholic schools and newspapers were closed,
and a propaganda campaign against the Catholics was launched. Almost immediately after agreeing the Concordat,
the Nazis promulgated their sterilization law, an offensive policy in the eyes of the
Catholic Church and moved to dissolve the Catholic Youth League. Clergy, nuns and lay leaders began to be targeted,
leading to thousands of arrests over the ensuing years, often on trumped up charges of currency
smuggling or “immorality”. In Hitler’s Night of the Long Knives purge,
Erich Klausener, the head of Catholic Action, was assassinated. Adalbert Probst, national director of the
Catholic Youth Sports Association, Fritz Gerlich, editor of Munich’s Catholic weekly and Edgar
Jung, one of the authors of the Marburg speech, were among the other Catholic opposition figures
killed in the purge.By 1937, the church hierarchy in Germany, which had initially attempted
to co-operate with the new government, had become highly disillusioned. In March, Pope Pius XI issued the Mit brennender
Sorge encyclical – accusing the Nazis of violations of the Concordat, and of sowing the “tares
of suspicion, discord, hatred, calumny, of secret and open fundamental hostility to Christ
and His Church”. The Pope noted on the horizon the “threatening
storm clouds” of religious wars of extermination over Germany. The Nazis responded with, an intensification
of the Church Struggle. There were mass arrests of clergy and church
presses were expropriated. Goebbels renewed the regime’s crackdown and
propaganda against Catholics. By 1939 all Catholic denominational schools
had been disbanded or converted to public facilities. By 1941, all Church press had been banned. Later Catholic protests included the 22 March
1942 pastoral letter by the German bishops on “The Struggle against Christianity and
the Church”. About 30 per cent of Catholic priests were
disciplined by police during the Nazi era. In effort to counter the strength and influence
of spiritual resistance, the security services monitored Catholic clergy very closely – instructing
that agents monitor every diocese, that the bishops’ reports to the Vatican should be
obtained and that bishops’ activities be discovered and reported. Priests were frequently denounced, arrested,
or sent to concentration camps – many to the dedicated clergy barracks at Dachau. Of a total of 2,720 clergy imprisoned at Dachau,
some 2,579 (or 94.88%) were Catholic. Nazi policy towards the Church was at its
most severe in the territories it annexed to Greater Germany, where the Nazis set about
systematically dismantling the Church – arresting its leaders, exiling its clergymen, closing
its churches, monasteries and convents. Many clergymen were murdered.===United States===John Higham described anti-Catholicism as
“the most luxuriant, tenacious tradition of paranoiac agitation in American history”. Jenkins, Philip. The New Anti-Catholicism: The Last Acceptable
Prejudice (Oxford University Press, New ed. 2004). British anti-Catholicism was exported to the
United States. Two types of anti-Catholic rhetoric existed
in colonial society. The first, derived from the heritage of the
Protestant Reformation and the religious wars of the sixteenth century, consisted of the
“Anti-Christ” and the “Whore of Babylon” variety and it dominated Anti-Catholic thought until
the late seventeenth century. The second was a more secular variety which
focused on the supposed intrigue of the Catholics intent on extending medieval despotism worldwide.Historian
Arthur Schlesinger Sr. has called Anti-Catholicism “the deepest-held bias in the history of the
American people”.Historian Joseph G. Mannard says that wars reduced anti-Catholicism: “enough
Catholics supported the War for Independence to erase many old myths about the inherently
treasonable nature of Catholicism….During the Civil War the heavy enlistments of Irish
and Germans into the Union Army helped to dispel notions of immigrant and Catholic disloyalty.”====
Colonial era====American anti-Catholicism has its origins
in the Protestant Reformation which generated anti-Catholic propaganda for various political
and dynastic reasons. Because the Protestant Reformation justified
itself as an effort to correct what it perceived were the errors and the excesses of the Catholic
Church, it formed strong positions against the Catholic bishops and the Papacy in particular. These positions were brought to New England
by English colonists who were predominantly Puritans. They opposed not only the Catholic Church
but also the Church of England which, due to its perpetuation of some Catholic doctrines
and practices, was deemed insufficiently “reformed”. Furthermore, English and Scottish identity
to a large extent was based on opposition to Catholicism. “To be English was to be anti-Catholic,” writes
Robert Curran. Because many of the British colonists, such
as the Puritans and Congregationalists, were fleeing religious persecution by the Church
of England, much of early American religious culture exhibited the more extreme anti-Catholic
bias of these Protestant denominations. Monsignor John Tracy Ellis wrote that a “universal
anti-Catholic bias was brought to Jamestown in 1607 and vigorously cultivated in all the
thirteen colonies from Massachusetts to Georgia”. Colonial charters and laws often contained
specific proscriptions against Catholics. For example, the second Massachusetts charter
of October 7, 1691 decreed “that forever hereafter there shall be liberty of conscience allowed
in the worship of God to all Christians, except Papists, inhabiting, or which shall inhabit
or be resident within, such Province or Territory”. Historians have identified only one Catholic
living in colonial Boston–Ann Glover. She was hanged as a witch in 1688, shortly
before the much more famous witchcraft trials in nearby Salem. Monsignor Ellis noted that a common hatred
of the Catholic Church could unite Anglican clerics and Puritan ministers despite their
differences and conflicts. One of the Intolerable Acts passed by the
British Parliament that helped fuel the American Revolution was the Quebec Act of 1774, which
granted freedom of worship to Roman Catholics in Canada.====New nation====
The Patriot reliance on Catholic France for military, financial and diplomatic aid led
to a sharp drop in anti-Catholic rhetoric. Indeed, the king replaced the pope as the
demon patriots had to fight against. Anti-Catholicism remained strong among Loyalists,
some of whom went to Canada after the war while most remained in the new nation. By the 1780s, Catholics were extended legal
toleration in all of the New England states that previously had been so hostile. “In the midst of war and crisis, New Englanders
gave up not only their allegiance to Britain but one of their most dearly held prejudices.”George
Washington was a vigorous promoter of tolerance for all religious denominations as commander
of the army (1775-1783) where he suppressed anti-Catholic celebrations in the Army and
appealed to French Catholics in Canada to join the American Revolution; a few hundred
did join. Likewise he guaranteed a high degree of freedom
of religion as president (1789-1797), when he often attended services of different denominations. The military alliance with Catholic France
in 1778 changed attitudes radically in Boston. Local leaders enthusiastically welcomed French
naval and military officers, realizing the alliance was critical to winning independence. The Catholic chaplain of the French army reported
in 1781 that he was continually receiving “new civilities” from the best families in
Boston; he also noted that “the people in general retain their own prejudices.” By 1790, about 500 Catholics in Boston formed
the first Catholic Church there.Fear of the pope agitated some of America’s Founding Fathers. For example, in 1788, John Jay urged the New
York Legislature to prohibit Catholics from holding office. The legislature refused, but did pass a law
designed to reach the same goal by requiring all office-holders to renounce foreign authorities
“in all matters ecclesiastical as well as civil”. Thomas Jefferson, looking at the Catholic
Church in France, wrote, “History, I believe, furnishes no example of a priest-ridden people
maintaining a free civil government”, and “In every country and in every age, the priest
has been hostile to liberty. He is always in alliance with the despot,
abetting his abuses in return for protection to his own.”====1840s–1850s====
Anti-Catholic fears reached a peak in the nineteenth century when the Protestant population
became alarmed by the influx of Catholic immigrants. Some claimed that the Catholic Church was
the Whore of Babylon in the Book of Revelation. The resulting “nativist” movement, which achieved
prominence in the 1840s, was whipped into a frenzy of anti-Catholicism that led to mob
violence, most notably the Philadelphia Nativist Riot of 1844. Historian David Montgomery argues that the
Irish Catholic Democrats in Philadelphia had successfully appealed to the upper-class Whig
leadership. The Whigs wanted to split the Democratic coalition,
so they approved Bishop Kendrick’s request that Catholic children be allowed to use their
own Bible. That approval outraged the evangelical Protestant
leadership, which rallied its support in Philadelphia and nationwide. Montgomery states: The school controversy, however, had united
94 leading clergymen of the city in a common pledge to strengthen Protestant education
and “awaken the attention of the community to the dangers which… threaten these United States from the assaults
of Romanism.” The American Tract Society took up the battle
cry and launched a national crusade to save the nation from the “spiritual despotism”
of Rome. The whole Protestant edifice of churches,
Bible societies, temperance societies, and missionary agencies was thus interposed against
Catholic electoral maneuvers …at the very moment when those maneuvers were enjoying
some success.The nativist movement found expression in a national political movement called the
“American” or Know-Nothing Party of 1854-56. It had considerable success in local and state
elections in 1854-55 by emphasizing nativism and warning against Catholics and immigrants. It nominated former president Millard Fillmore
as its presidential candidate in the 1856 election. However, Fillmore was not anti-Catholic or
nativist; his campaign concentrated almost entirely on national unity. Historian Tyler Anbinder says, “The American
party had dropped nativism from its agenda.” Fillmore won 22% of the national popular vote.In
the Orange Riots in New York City in 1871 and 1872, Irish Catholics violently attacked
Irish Protestants, who carried orange banners.Anti-Catholicism among American Jews further intensified in
the 1850s during the international controversy over the Edgardo Mortara case, when a baptized
Jewish boy in the Papal States was removed from his family and refused to return to them.After
1875 many states passed constitutional provisions, called “Blaine Amendments”, forbidding tax
money be used to fund parochial schools. In 2002, the United States Supreme Court partially
vitiated these amendments, when they ruled that vouchers were constitutional if tax dollars
followed a child to a school even if the school were religious.====20th century-21st century====Anti-Catholicism played a major role in the
defeat of Al Smith, the Democratic nominee for President in 1928. Smith did very well in Catholic precincts,
but poorly in the South, and among Lutherans of the North. His candidacy was also hampered by his close
ties with the notorious Tammany Hall political machine in New York City and his strong opposition
to prohibition. His cause was in any case uphill, facing a
popular Republican leadership in a year of peace and unprecedented prosperity.The adoption
of the 18th Amendment in 1919, a culmination of a half-century of anti-liquor agitation,
also fueled anti-Catholic sentiment. Prohibition enjoyed strong support among dry
pietistic Protestants, and equally strong opposition by wet Catholics, Episcopalians,
and German Lutherans. The drys focused their distrust on the Catholics
and they gave little popular support to the enforcement of prohibition laws, and when
the Great Depression began in 1929 there was increasing sentiment that the government needed
the tax revenue that repeal of Prohibition would bring.Over 10 million Protestant soldiers
who served in World War II came into close contact with Catholic soldiers; they got along
well and, after the war, they played the central role in spreading high new levels of ethnic
and religious tolerance for Catholics among other white Americans. Although anti-Catholic sentiment in the U.S.
declined in the 1960s after John F. Kennedy became the first Catholic U.S. president,
traces persist in both the media and popular culture.==In primarily Catholic countries==
Anti-clericalism is a historical movement that opposes religious (generally Catholic)
institutional power and influence in all aspects of public and political life, and the involvement
of religion in the everyday life of the citizen. It suggests a more active and partisan role
than mere laïcité. The goal of anticlericalism is sometimes to
reduce religion to a purely private belief-system with no public profile or influence. However, many times it has included outright
suppression of all aspects of faith. Anticlericalism has at times been violent,
leading to murders and the desecration, destruction and seizure of church property. Anticlericalism in one form or another has
existed throughout most of Christian history, and it is considered to be one of the major
popular forces underlying the 16th century reformation. Some of the philosophers of the Enlightenment,
including Voltaire, continually attacked the Catholic Church, both its leadership and its
priests, claiming that many of its clergy were morally corrupt. These assaults in part led to the suppression
of the Jesuits, and played a major part in the wholesale attacks on the very existence
of the Church during the French Revolution in the Reign of Terror and the program of
dechristianization. Similar attacks on the Church occurred in
Mexico and Portugal since their 1910 revolutions and in Spain during the twentieth century.===Brazil===Brazil has the largest number of Catholics
in the world, and as such it has not experienced any large anti-Catholic movements. During the Nineteenth Century, the Religious
Question was the name given to the crisis when Freemasons in the Brazilian government
imprisoned two Catholic bishops for enforcing the Church’s prohibition against Freemasonry. Even during times in which the Church was
experiencing intense conservatism, such as the era of the Brazilian military dictatorship,
anti-Catholicism was not advocated by the left-wing movements (instead, Liberation theology
gained force). However, with the growing number of Protestants
(especially Neo-Pentecostals) in the country, anti-Catholicism has gained strength. A pivotal moment during the rise of anti-Catholicism
was the kicking of the saint episode in 1995. However, owing to the protests of the Catholic
majority, the perpetrator was transferred to South Africa for the duration of the controversy.===Colombia===
Anti-Catholic and anti-clerical sentiments, some spurred by an anti-clerical conspiracy
theory which was circulating in Colombia during the mid-twentieth century led to persecution
of Catholics and killings, most specifically of the clergy, during the events known as
La Violencia.===France===During the French Revolution (1789–95) clergy
and religious were persecuted and church property was destroyed and confiscated by the new government
as part of a process of Dechristianization, the aim of which was the destruction of Catholic
practices and the destruction of the very faith itself, culminating in the imposition
of the atheistic Cult of Reason and then the deistic Cult of the Supreme Being. Persecution led Catholics in the west of France
to engage in a counterrevolution, the War in the Vendée, and when the state was victorious
it killed tens of thousands. A few historians have called it genocide. Most historians say it was a brutal repression
of political enemies. The French invasions of Italy (1796–99)
included an assault on Rome and the exile of Pope Pius VI in 1798. Relations improved in 1802 when Napoleon came
to terms with the Pope in the Concordat of 1801. It allowed the Church to operate but did not
give back the lands; it proved satisfactory for a century. By 1815 the Papacy supported the growing alliance
against Napoleon, and was re-instated as the state church during the conservative Bourbon
Restoration of 1815-30. The brief French Revolution of 1848 again
opposed the Church, but the Second French Empire (1851–71) gave it full support. The history of 1789–1871 had established
two camps—the left against the Church and the right supporting it—that largely continued
until the Vatican II process in 1962–65.France’s Third Republic (1871–1940) was cemented
by anti-clericalism, the desire to secularise the State and social life, faithful to the
French Revolution. This was the position of the radicals and
socialists. in 1902 Émile Combes became Minister of the Interior, and the main energy of the
government was devoted to an anti-clerical agenda. The parties of the Left, Socialists and Radicals,
united upon this question in the Bloc republicain, supported Combes in his application of the
law of 1901 on the religious associations, and voted the new bill on the congregations
(1904). By 1904, through his efforts, nearly 10,000
religious schools had been closed and thousands of priests and nuns left France rather than
be persecuted. Under his guidance parliament moved toward
the 1905 French law on the separation of Church and State, which ended the Napoleonic arrangement
of 1801.In the Affaire Des Fiches, in France in 1904–1905, it was discovered that the
militantly anticlerical War Minister under Combes, General Louis André, was determining
promotions based on the French Masonic Grand Orient’s huge card index on public officials,
detailing which were Catholic and who attended Mass, with the goal of preventing their promotions. Exposure almost caused the government to fall;
instead Combes retired.===Italy===In the Napoleonic era, anti-clericalism was
a powerful political force. From 1860 through 1870, the new Italian government,
under the House of Savoy, outlawed all religious orders, both male and female, including the
Franciscans, the Dominicans and the Jesuits, closed down their monasteries and confiscated
their property, and imprisoned or banished bishops who opposed this (see Kulturkampf). Italy took over Rome in 1870 when it lost
its French protection; the Pope declared himself a prisoner in the Vatican. Relations were finally normalized in 1929
with the Lateran Treaty.===Mexico===
Following the Mexican Revolution of 1860, Liberal President Benito Juárez issued a
decree nationalizing church property, separating church and state, and suppressing religious
orders. Following the revolution of 1910, the new
Mexican Constitution of 1917 contained further anti-clerical provisions. Article 3 called for secular education in
the schools and prohibited the Church from engaging in primary education; Article 5 outlawed
monastic orders; Article 24 forbade public worship outside the confines of churches;
and Article 27 placed restrictions on the right of religious organizations to hold property. Article 130 deprived clergy members of basic
political rights. Mexican President Plutarco Elías Calles’s
enforcement of previous anti-Catholic legislation denying priests’ rights, enacted as the Calles
Law, prompted the Mexican Episcopate to suspend all Catholic worship in Mexico from August
1, 1926 and sparked the bloody Cristero War of 1926–1929 in which some 50,000 peasants
took up arms against the government. Their slogan was “¡Viva Cristo Rey!” (Long live Christ the King!). The effects of the war on the Church were
profound. Between 1926 and 1934 at least 40 priests
were killed. Where there were 4,500 priests serving the
people before the rebellion, in 1934 there were only 334 priests licensed by the government
to serve fifteen million people, the rest having been eliminated by emigration, expulsion
and assassination. It appears that ten states were left without
any priests. Other sources indicate that the persecution
was such that, by 1935, 17 states were left with no priests at all.Some of the Catholic
casualties of this struggle are known as the Saints of the Cristero War. Events relating to this were famously portrayed
in the novel The Power and the Glory by Graham Greene.===Poland===For the situation in Russian Poland, see Anticatholicism
in Russian Empire Catholicism in Poland, the religion of the
vast majority of the population, was severely persecuted during World War II, following
the Nazi invasion of the country and its subsequent annexation into Germany. Over 3 million Catholics of Polish descent
were murdered during the Invasion of Poland, including 3 bishops, 52 priests, 26 monks,
3 seminarians, 8 nuns and 9 lay people, later beatified in 1999 by Pope John Paul II as
the 108 Martyrs of World War Two. The Roman Catholic Church was even more violently
suppressed in Reichsgau Wartheland and the General Government. Churches were closed, and clergy were deported,
imprisoned, or killed, among them was Maximilian Kolbe, a Pole of German descent. Between 1939 and 1945, 2,935 members of the
Polish clergy (18%) were killed in concentration camps. In the city of Chełmno, for example, 48%
of the Catholic clergy were killed. Catholicism continued to be persecuted under
the Communist regime from the 1950s. Contemporary Stalinist ideology claimed that
the Church and religion in general were about to disintegrate. Initially, Archbishop Wyszyński entered into
an agreement with the Communist authorities, which was signed on 14 February 1950 by the
Polish episcopate and the government. The Agreement regulated the matters of the
Church in Poland. However, in May of that year, the Sejm breached
the Agreement by passing a law for the confiscation of Church property. On 12 January 1953, Wyszyński was elevated
to the rank of cardinal by Pius XII as another wave of persecution began in Poland. When the bishops voiced their opposition to
state interference in ecclesiastical appointments, mass trials and the internment of priests
began—the cardinal being one of its victims. On 25 September 1953 he was imprisoned at
Grudziądz, and later placed under house arrest in monasteries in Prudnik near Opole and in
Komańcza Monastery in the Bieszczady Mountains. He was released on 26 October 1956. Pope John Paul II, who was born in Poland
as Karol Wojtyla, often cited the persecution of Polish Catholics in his stance against
Communism.===Spain===
Anti-clericalism in Spain at the start of the Spanish Civil War resulted in the killing
of almost 7,000 clergy, the destruction of hundreds of churches and the persecution of
lay people in Spain’s Red Terror. Hundreds of Martyrs of the Spanish Civil War
have been beatified and hundreds more were beatified in October 2007.==In mixed Catholic-Protestant countries
=====Switzerland===
The Jesuits (Societas Jesu) were banned from all activities in either clerical or pedagogical
functions by Article 51 of the Swiss constitution in 1848. The reason for the ban was the perceived threat
to the stability of the state resulting from Jesuit advocacy of traditional Catholicism;
it followed the Roman Catholic cantons forming an unconstitutional separate alliance leading
to civil war. In June 1973, 54.9% of Swiss voters approved
removing the ban on the Jesuits (as well as Article 52 which banned monasteries and convents
from Switzerland) (See Kulturkampf and Religion in Switzerland)==In primarily Orthodox countries=====
Russian Empire===During Russian rule, Catholics, primarily
Poles and Lithuanians, suffered great persecution not only because of their ethnic-national
background, but also for religious reasons. Especially after the uprisings of 1831 and
1863, and within the process of Russification (understanding that there is a strong link
between religion and nationality), the tsarist authorities were anxious to promote the conversion
of these peoples to the official faith, intervening in public education in those regions (an Orthodox
religious education was compulsory ) and censoring the actions of the Catholic Church. In particular, attention was focussed on the
public actions of the Church, such as masses or funerals, because they could serve as the
focus of protests against the occupation. Many priests were imprisoned or deported because
of their activities in defense of their religion and ethnicity. In the late nineteenth century, however, there
was a progressive relaxation of the control of Catholic institutions by the Russian authorities.===Serbia===From the 19th Century onwards, anti-Catholic
sentiment amongst Serbian nationalists has been synonymous with Anti-Croat sentiment,
due to the fact that the plurality of Croats identify with the Roman Catholic church. Beginning with the nation-building process
in the mid-19th century, first Croatian–Serbian tension appeared. Serbian minister Ilija Garašanin’s Načertanije
(1844) claimed lands that were inhabited by Bulgarians, Macedonians, Albanians, Montenegrins,
Bosnians, Hungarians and Croats were part of Serbia. Garašanin’s plan also includes methods of
spreading Serbian influence in the claimed lands. He proposed ways to influence Croats, who
Garašanin regarded as “Serbs of Catholic faith”. This plan considered surrounding peoples to
be devoid of national consciousness. Vuk Karadžić partly denied the existence
of Croatians and Croatian language, counting them as “Catholic Serbs” except those who
speak Chakavian dialect. Croatia was at the time a kingdom in Habsburg
monarchy, with Dalmatia and Istria being separate Habsburg Crown lands. Ante Starčević, head of the Croatian Party
of Rights, proved that Croats and Croatia do exist and reciprocated, denying Serbia. After Austro-Hungary occupied Bosnia and Herzegovina
in 1878 and Serbia gained its independence from Ottoman Empire, Croatian and Serbian
relations deteriorated as both sides had pretensions on Bosnia and Herzegovina. In 1902 major anti-Serb riots in Croatia were
caused by reprinted article written by Serb Nikola Stojanović that was published in the
publication of the Serbian Independent Party from Zagreb titled Do istrage vaše ili naše
(Till the Annihilation, yours or ours) in which denying of the existence of Croat nation
as well as forecasting the result of the “inevitable” Serbian-Croatian conflict occurred. That combat has to be led till the destruction,
either ours or yours. One side must succumb. That side will be Croatians, due to their
minority, geographical position, mingling with Serbs and because the process of evolution
means Serbhood is equal to progress. During World War II in Yugoslavia, Serbian
Chetnik ideologists contended that ethnic cleansing of certain areas was necessary to
consolidate an ethnically-“pure” Serb territory as a basis of post-war Yugoslavia. The ethnic cleansing was expected to be conducted
“at a convenient moment.” One of a number of documents that attest to
this plan is Mihailović’s written memorandum to Pavle Đurišić of 20 December 1941: The
goals of our squadrons are: A struggle for the freedom of our people under
the scepter of His Majesty King Peter II, To create Greater Yugoslavia and Greater Serbia
within it, and ethnically cleansed Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Syrmia, Banat and
Bačka within Greater Serbia, A struggle for inclusion into our state life
all other Slavic territories occupied by the Italians and Germans (Trieste, Gorizia, Istria
and Carinthia) as well as Bulgaria and northern Albania with Shkodër,
Cleansing the state territory from all national minorities and non-national elements,
To create immediate common borders between Serbia and Montenegro, as well as between
Serbia and Slovenia by [ethnically] cleansing Sandžak from Muslims and Bosnia from Muslims
and Croats … Written evidence by Chetnik commanders indicates
that terrorism against the non-Serb population was intended to establish an ethnically-pure
Greater Serbia in the historical territory of other ethnic groups (most notably Croatian
and Muslim, but also Bulgarian, Romanian, Hungarian, Macedonian and Montenegrin). Mihailović went further than Moljević and
requested over 90 percent of the NDH’s territory, where more than 2,500,000 Catholics and over
800,000 Muslims lived (70 percent of the total population, with Orthodox Serbs the remaining
30 percent). Chetnik commander Milan Šantić said in Trebinje
in July 1942, “The Serb lands must be cleansed from Catholics and Muslims. They will be inhabited only by the Serbs. Cleansing will be carried out thoroughly,
and we will suppress and destroy them all without exception and without pity, which
will be the starting point for our liberation.”During the Yugoslav Wars in Croatia and Bosnia and
Herzegovina, the ICTY determined that ethnic Croats were persecuted on political, racial
and religious grounds, as part of a general campaign of killings and forced-removals of
Croat civilians. The religious element of Serbian persecution
against Catholic Croats was the deliberate destruction of religious buildings and monuments,
including churches, chapels and even cemeteries. It is estimated that some 400 Catholic churches
were destroyed or severely damaged by Serb forces during the Croatian War of Independence,
while another 706 Catholic religious buildings and monuments were destroyed or damaged by
Serb forces during the Bosnian War. Serbian nationalists, such as the Serbian
Radical Party leader, Vojislav Šešelj, have also used anti-Catholic sentiment as a means
of expressing anti-Croat sentiment. In 2007, Šešelj published the ‘The Roman
Catholic Criminal Project of the Artificial Croatian Nation’, where he states amongst
many other things, that: “Today’s “Croatian nation” is the artificial
creation of the Roman Catholic Church, envisioned beforehand as an instrument in a criminal
project based on the aspiration to destroy the Serbian nation through Uniatism, conversion
to Catholicism or complete physical liquidation, so that it would no longer represent an obstacle
to the further expansion of proselytism to the East European lands”.===Ukraine===In the separatist region known as the Donetsk
People’s Republic, the government has declared that the Russian Orthodox Church of the Moscow
Patriarchate is the state religion, and Protestant churches have been occupied by paramilitaries. Jehovah’s Witnesses have lost their property,
and their Kingdom Halls have been occupied by rebels in the Donetsk and Luhansk regions. Roman Catholic, Greek Catholic, Ukrainian
Orthodox, and Protestant clergy have been kidnapped by groups such as the Russian Orthodox
Army, and they have also been accused of opposing Russian Orthodox values. Human Rights Watch says that the bodies of
several members of the Church of the Transfiguration were found in a mass grave in 2014.==Non-Christian nations=====
Bangladesh===On 3 June 2001 nine people were killed by
a bomb explosion at a Roman Catholic church in the Gopalganj District.===China===
The Daoguang Emperor modified existing law making spreading Catholicism punishable by
death. During the Boxer Rebellion, Catholic missionaries
and their families were murdered by Boxer rebels. During the 1905 Tibetan Rebellion, Tibetan
rebels murdered Catholics and Tibetan converts.Since the founding of the People’s Republic of China,
all religions including Catholicism only operate under state control. However, there are Catholics who do not accept
state rule over the Church and worship clandestinely. There has been some rapprochement between
the Chinese government and the Vatican.===Japan===
On February 5, 1597 a group of twenty-six Catholics were killed on the orders of Toyotomi
Hideyoshi. During the Tokugawa Shogunate, Japanese Catholics
were suppressed leading to an armed rebellion during the 1630s. After the rebellion was defeated, Catholicism
was furthered suppressed and many went underground. Catholicism was not openly restored to Japan
until the 1850s.===North Korea===
See Roman Catholicism in North Korea===Sri Lanka===
A Buddhist-influenced government took over 600 parish schools in 1960 without compensation
and secularized them. Attempts were made by future governments to
restore some autonomy.==Within the Catholic Church==
The term “anti-Catholic Catholic” has come to be applied to Catholics who are perceived
to view the Catholic Church with animosity. The term is often used by traditionalist or
conservative Catholics to describe modernist or liberal Catholics, especially those who
seek to reform doctrine, make secularist critiques of the Catholic Church, or place secular principles
above Church teachings. Those who take issue with Catholic theology
of sexuality are especially prone to this label.===Suppression of the Jesuits===Prime Minister Pombal of Portugal was aggressively
hostile to the Jesuit order, because it reported to an Italian power—the pope—And try to
operate independently of the government. He organized a full-scale war on the Jesuits
both in Portugal, and in much of Catholic Europe as well. The Jesuit order was suppressed in the Portuguese
Empire (1759), France (1764), the Two Sicilies, Malta, Parma, the Spanish Empire (1767) and
Austria and Hungary (1782). The Pope himself suppressed the order everywhere
in 1773, but it survived in Russia and Prussia. The suppression was a major blow to Catholic
education across Europe, with nearly a 1000 secondary schools and seminaries shut down,
their lands, building and endowments were confiscated; their teachers scattered. Although Jesuit education had become old fashioned
in Poland and other areas, it was the main educational support network for Catholic intellectuals,
senior clergy and prominent families. Governments tried in vain to replace all those
schools, but there were far too few non-clerical teachers who were suitable.The Jesuit order
was restored by the pope in 1814, and flourished in terms of rebuilding schools and educational
institutions, but it never regained its an enormous power in the political realm. The suppression of the Jesuits “was an unmitigated
disaster for Catholicism.” The political weakness of the once powerful
institution was on public display for ridicule and more bullying. The Church lost its best educational system,
its best edgy missionary system, in its most innovative thinkers. Intellectually, it would take two centuries
for the church to fully recover.==In popular culture==Anti-Catholic stereotypes are a long-standing
feature of English literature, popular fiction, and even pornography. Gothic fiction is particularly rich in this
regard. Lustful priests, cruel abbesses, immured nuns,
and sadistic inquisitors appear in such works as The Italian by Ann Radcliffe, The Monk
by Matthew Lewis, Melmoth the Wanderer by Charles Maturin and “The Pit and the Pendulum”
by Edgar Allan Poe.==See also====
Notes====
External links==Observatory on Intolerance and Discrimination
Against Christians in Europe==
Further reading==

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